Nutrient Information: Magnesium, Mg

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Nutrient Key Information 
Nutrient Name: Magnesium, Mg
Nutrient Category: Minerals
Unit Name: mg
Nutrient Summary: Magnesium helps regulate muscle and nerve function, blood sugar levels, and blood pressure. It plays role in making protein, bone, and DNA.
Nutrient Function: • Regulate blood sugar level: magnesium helps the body break down sugars
• Regulate blood pressure (decrease blood pressure by a small amount)
• Maintain intracellular levels of potassium and calcium
• Bone health: increase bone mineral density which reduces the risk of bone fractures and osteoporosis
• Enable muscle contraction
• Nervous system function, such as sending messages
• Normalize heart rhythm
• Protein synthesis
• Is required for the synthesis of DNA, RNA
• Is required for energy production, oxidative phosphorylation, and glycolysis

Magnesium is maintained primarily by the kidneys, where it is filtered and reabsorbed and excessive magnesium is efficiently excreted in urine. Magnesium exists in bones and soft tissues.

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Food Sources

• Green leafy vegetables, such as spinach
• Whole grains
• Nuts and pumpkin seeds
• Potatoes
• Dairy products, such as cheese
• Fruits, such as raisins and bananas
• Beans and peas, such as black beans and soybeans
• Tap, mineral, and bottled waters may also contain magnesium

1) Refined and processed foods contain less magnesium.
2) High levels of dietary fiber from fruits, vegetables, and grains decrease magnesium absorption or retention, or both.
3) Phosphorus may decrease magnesium absorption.
4) High protein intakes may improve magnesium absorption and retention.

Sample Foods High in: Magnesium, Mg
View Additional Food Sources
Food Description Nutrient Amount1 Daily Value%2
Seeds, pumpkin and squash seed kernels, roasted, without salt
Category: Nut and Seed Products
550 mg 171.88%
Nuts, almonds, dry roasted, with salt added
Category: Nut and Seed Products
258 mg 80.62%
Nuts, cashew nuts, oil roasted, without salt added
Category: Nut and Seed Products
273 mg 85.31%
Chocolate, dark, 70-85% cacao solids
Category: Sweets
228 mg 71.25%
Peanut butter with omega-3, creamy
Category: Legumes and Legume Products
191 mg 59.69%
Seaweed, kelp, raw
Category: Vegetables and Vegetable Products
121 mg 37.81%
1 Nutrient amount is in 100 gram food
2 Use Female 31-50 years old as Daily Value reference

Additional Nutrient Information
Nutrient Summary Magnesium helps regulate muscle and nerve function, blood sugar levels, and blood pressure. It plays role in making protein, bone, and DNA.
Deficiency Health Effects The potential effects of magnesium deficiency include:
• Loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and weakness.
• Muscle cramps, latent tetany, spontaneous carpopedal spasm, and seizures.
• Symptomatic hypocalcemia (when magnesium deficiency becomes moderate to severe)

People who are more likely than others to have magnesium deficiency:
• With gastrointestinal diseases
• With type 2 diabetes
• Long-term alcoholism
• Older people
Effects if Above Upper Limit Magnesium intake from nature foods doesn't show adverse effects for almost all people. However, adverse effects were observed from excessive intake of nonfood sources, such as various magnesium salts. The adverse effects include:

• Diarrhea (primary symptom)
• Nausea
• Abdominal cramps

Note: per Dietary Reference Intakes booklet, the Upper Limit values listed in the table represent intake from pharmacological agents only and do not include intake from food and water.
External References Learn more at:
• The National Academies of Science, Engineering, Medicine publication: Dietary Reference Intakes
• NIH (National Institutes of Health) Article: Magnesium

Daily Value Age Group Recommended Daily Values Daily Value Upper Limits
Toddler 1 to 3 years old: 80 mg 65 mg
Child 4 to 8 years old: 130 mg 110 mg
Male 9 to 13 years old: 240 mg 350 mg
Male 14 to 18 years old: 410 mg 350 mg
Male 19 to 30 years old: 400 mg 350 mg
Male 31 to 50 years old: 420 mg 350 mg
Male 51 to 70 years old: 420 mg 350 mg
Male Senior 71 or older: 420 mg 350 mg
Female 9 to 13 years old: 240 mg 350 mg
Female 14 to 18 years old: 360 mg 350 mg
Female 19 to 30 years old: 310 mg 350 mg
Female 31 to 50 years old: 320 mg 350 mg
Female 51 to 70 years old: 320 mg 350 mg
Female Senior 71 or older: 320 mg 350 mg
Female Pregnancy (>18): 360 mg 350 mg
Female Lactation (>18): 320 mg 350 mg
FDA (Based on 2000 calorie daily diet): 420 mg

Dietary Reference Intakes The nutrient Dietary Reference Intakes and nutrition facts is from Institute of Medicine of National Academies 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
US FDA Nutrition Education Nutrition facts knowledge are based on U.S. FOOD & DRUG Administration Nutrition Education Resources & Materials.
National Institutes of Health Nutrition facts knowledge are based on National Institutes of Health Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets.
Disclaimer The nutrient information provided here should not take the place of medical advice. We encourage you to talk to your healthcare providers (such as your doctor) about your dietary requirements which are best for your overall health. We also recommend you to read organization or professional reference documents or articles mentioned, but not limited to, in this page. Any mentions and reference links in this page don't represent our endorsement of their services and advice.

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