Nutrient Information: Phosphorus, P

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Nutrient Key Information 
Nutrient Name: Phosphorus, P
Nutrient Category: Minerals
Measuring Unit: mg
Nutrient Summary: Phosphorus is a major component of bones and teeth. It involves metabolic processes to make energy for the body. It plays key roles in the maintenance of normal pH value in extracellular fluid.
Nutrient Function: • Phosphorus plays key role in bone growth and health. It helps bone formation and development.
• Temporarily store and transfer energy derived from metabolism
• Phospholipids is a component of cell membrane structure, they control the transport of nutrients into and out of the cells
• Plays key roles in regulation of gene transcription, activation of some enzymes and B vitamins
• Maintain acid and alkali pH value balance in extracellular fluid
• Dietary phosphorus supports tissue growth
• Phosphorus is part of DNA and RNA, so it is needed for the growth of all parts of the body

Phosphorus, P Interactions With Other Nutrients 
Calcium, Ca
High phosphorus or high calcium can reduce the absorption of the other if the other intake is low

Phosphorus and calcium can bind each other in the intestines to form insoluble complexes. These complexes are not easily absorbed by the intestines, so the overall absorption of both minerals are reduced.

Both calcium and phosphorus are essential for bone health, so their balance and absorption are critical. The ideal ratio for calcium:phosphorus by weight is between 1:1 - 2:1.

In addition, high phosphorus levels can stimulate the release of Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) which increases calcium resorption from bones to maintain normal blood calcium levels. This can potentially weaken bones over time.


Magnesium, Mg
High phosphorus intake reduces magnesium absorption

High intake levels of phosphorus, especially along with high intake of calcium, can bind phosphorus with magnesium and calcium to form insoluble complexes in the intestine. These insoluble compounds are less easily absorbed by the intestinal walls into the bloodstream.

Diets high in phosphorus, particularly from processed foods with phosphate additives, can increase the likelihood of magnesium-phosphate complex formation. These processed foods include soft drinks, processed meats, and convenience foods (such as frozen meals).

Vitamin D enhances magnesium absorption. So, if a person has sufficient vitamin D levels, the impact of phosphorus on magnesium uptake might be lessened.



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Food Sources

Dairy products: the phosphorus density of cow milk is higher than most of other foods, and its phosphorus bioavailability is also quite higher.
Eggs yolk, meat, poultry, fish
Seed, beans, peas, Nuts (such as cashews): they contain phytic acid also called phytate (a form of phosphorus), which require phytase (existing in other foods such as yeasts) to be absorbed.
Whole grain, enriched, and fortified cereals and breads.
Vegetables: such as potatoes and asparagus
Soft drinks containing phosphoric acid

Note:
1) foods rich in proteins, such as meat, poultry, fish, milk, and cheese are the best sources of phosphorus.
2) many processed foods and soft drinks contain phosphorus additives for the purpose of moisture retention, color retention, smoothness, and binding.
3) Calcium from foods and supplements can bind to some of the phosphorus in foods and prevent its absorption. High phosphorus intake may reduce calcium absorption, as a result, impact the bone health.
4) dietary intake of phosphorus appears to be affected more by total food intake, and less by differences in food composition. There is about 62 mg/100 kcal.

Sample Foods High in: Phosphorus, P
View Additional Food Sources
Food Description Nutrient Amount1 Daily Value%2
Seeds, pumpkin and squash seed kernels, roasted, without salt
Category: Nut and Seed Products
1,174 mg 93.92%
Seeds, sunflower seed kernels, dry roasted, without salt
Category: Nut and Seed Products
1,155 mg 92.40%
KRAFT FREE Singles American Nonfat Pasteurized Process Cheese Product
Category: Dairy and Egg Products
923 mg 73.84%
Cheese, parmesan, low sodium
Category: Dairy and Egg Products
807 mg 64.56%
Soybeans, mature seeds, dry roasted
Category: Legumes and Legume Products
649 mg 51.92%
Nuts, cashew nuts, oil roasted, without salt added
Category: Nut and Seed Products
531 mg 42.48%
Beef, variety meats and by-products, liver, cooked, braised
Category: Beef Products
497 mg 39.76%
Egg, yolk, raw, fresh
Category: Dairy and Egg Products
390 mg 31.20%
1 Nutrient amount is in 100 gram food
2 Use FDA 2000 calorie diet as Daily Value reference



Additional Nutrient Information
Nutrient Summary Phosphorus is a major component of bones and teeth. It involves metabolic processes to make energy for the body. It plays key roles in the maintenance of normal pH value in extracellular fluid.
Deficiency Health Effects Phosphorus deficiency is generally not a problem. If it does occur, here are some adverse effects:
• Anorexia
• Anemia
• Muscle weakness
• Bone pain, soft and deformed bones
• Higher risk of infection

Phosphorus absorption can be reduced by aluminum-containing antacids and pharmacological doses of calcium carbonate when the body phosphorus level is high.
Effects if Above Upper Limit The phosphorus absorption efficiency doesn't decrease by the serum phosphorus high level in the body. If a person has chronic kidney problem, phosphate cannot be excreted via urine efficiently. Excess phosphorus intake from any source can result in hyperphosphatemia. The potential adverse effects of high phosphorus level in the body are:

• Reduced calcium absorption capability
• Calcification of non-skeletal tissues, particularly the kidneys
• High intakes of polyphosphates found in additives may interfere with the absorption of some minerals, such as magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, and zinc.

Some concerns are raised for high phosphorus intake because of the phosphoric acid in some soft drinks and phosphate additives contained in some processed foods.
External References



Daily Value Age Group Recommended Daily Values Daily Value Upper Limits
Toddler 1 to 3 years old: 460 mg 3,000 mg
Child 4 to 8 years old: 500 mg 3,000 mg
Male 9 to 13 years old: 1,250 mg 4,000 mg
Male 14 to 18 years old: 1,250 mg 4,000 mg
Male 19 to 30 years old: 700 mg 4,000 mg
Male 31 to 50 years old: 700 mg 4,000 mg
Male 51 to 70 years old: 700 mg 4,000 mg
Male Senior 71 or older: 700 mg 3,000 mg
Female 9 to 13 years old: 1,250 mg 4,000 mg
Female 14 to 18 years old: 1,250 mg 4,000 mg
Female 19 to 30 years old: 700 mg 4,000 mg
Female 31 to 50 years old: 700 mg 4,000 mg
Female 51 to 70 years old: 700 mg 4,000 mg
Female Senior 71 or older: 700 mg 3,000 mg
Female Pregnancy (>18): 700 mg 3,500 mg
Female Lactation (>18): 700 mg 4,000 mg
FDA (Based on 2000 calorie daily diet): 1,250 mg


Dietary Reference Intakes The nutrient Dietary Reference Intakes and nutrition facts is from Institute of Medicine of National Academies 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/11537
US FDA Nutrition Education Nutrition facts knowledge are based on U.S. FOOD & DRUG Administration Nutrition Education Resources & Materials. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/interactivenutritionfactslabel/
National Institutes of Health Nutrition facts knowledge are based on National Institutes of Health Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/list-all
Disclaimer The nutrient information provided here should not take the place of medical advice. We encourage you to talk to your healthcare providers (such as your doctor) about your dietary requirements which are best for your overall health. We also recommend you to read organization or professional reference documents or articles mentioned, but not limited to, in this page. Any mentions and reference links in this page don't represent our endorsement of their services and advice.


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