Nutrient Information: Carbohydrate, by difference

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Nutrient Key Information 
Nutrient Name: Carbohydrate, by difference
Nutrient Category: Carbohydrates and Sugar
Unit Name: g
Nutrient Summary: Carbohydrates provide calories ("energy") for the body (4 calories per gram of carbohydrate). Carbohydrate includes:
• Sugar (monosaccharides)
• Starches (polysaccharides)
• Fibers (polysaccharides)


Sample Foods High in:
Carbohydrate, by difference  ( Additional Top Food Sources )
Food Description Nutrient Amount1 Daily Value%2
Sugars, powdered
Category: Sweets
99.77 g 36.28%
Corn bran, crude
Category: Cereal Grains and Pasta
85.64 g 31.14%
Honey
Category: Sweets
82.4 g 29.96%
Flour, rice, glutinous
Category: Cereal Grains and Pasta
80.1 g 29.13%
Raisins, golden, seedless
Category: Fruits and Fruit Juices
80.02 g 29.10%
Flour, wheat, all-purpose, enriched, bleached
Category: Cereal Grains and Pasta
77.3 g 28.11%
1 Nutrient amount is in 100 gram food
2 Use Female 31-50 years old as Daily Value reference


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Nutrient Detail Information
Nutrient Summary Carbohydrates provide calories ("energy") for the body (4 calories per gram of carbohydrate). Carbohydrate includes:
• Sugar (monosaccharides)
• Starches (polysaccharides)
• Fibers (polysaccharides)
Nutrient Function Glucose (a type of monosaccharides) is the primary energy source for the body’s cells, tissues, and organs (such as the brain and muscles), especially brain and central nervous system.

Sugar: the main sources of sugar are fruits, honey, and some vegetables. They contain fructose (a type of monosaccharides) which are converted to glucose in the body.
Starches: the main sources of starch are grains, legumes, tubers, and root crops. The body digest function hydrolyzes the starch (a type of polysaccharides) to glucose. The metabolism and absorption occurs mostly in small intestine, and some in liver.
Fibers: fibers are the structure of plant stems, trunks, roots, leaves, and skins. Fiber is a type of polysaccharides, however, the body digestive enzymes cannot break down the bonds between their monosaccharides. So it generates little or no energy.

Glucose in the blood is transported to the brain, nervous system, and other cells and tissues. Excessive glucose is transported to the liver and muscles as storage. The glucose stored in the liver (in the form of glycogen) is for the backup use when the glucose level is low in the blood stream. When the glucose storage is full in liver and muscles, the remaining glucose is converted into fat and stored in the fatty tissues in the body.
Food Sources
Top Food Sources
Naturally sugars: fruits, vegetables, and dairy products.
Added sugars: such as non-diet soft drinks, baked goods, desserts, sugar-sweetened beverages, and sweets.
Starches: grains (rice, wheat, millet, rye, barley, and oats), legumes (kidney beans, black-eyed peas, pinto beans, navy beans, and garbanzo beans), tubers (potatoes), and root crops (yams and cassava).
Naturally dietary fibers:vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes, nuts, seeds, peas, etc.
Sugar alcohols: fruits and vegetables, and also commercially produced and added as reduced-calorie sweeteners to foods (such as chewing gum, baked goods, desserts, frostings, and sweets).

Note: recommend 45-65% of energy (calories) comes from carbohydrate. 1 gram carbohydrate generates 4 calories.

To control the glucose level in the blood stream, it is recommended to eat foods with a low Glycemic Index. The GI index is used to indicate the speed of raising blood glucose level after the food is taken and digested. The smaller the Index number is, the slower it raises the blood glucose level.
Deficiency Health Effects One concern is the long-term effect of a diet too low in carbohydrate may lead to bone mineral loss, hypercholesterolemia, increased risk of urolithiasis, impaired development and function of the central nervous system, and fail to provide adequate glycogen stores.
Effects if Above Upper Limit Data are mixed on potential adverse effects of overconsuming carbohydrate. One concern of overconsuming sugars and starches is the dental caries and risk of obesity. High blood glucose level increases the risk of diabetes.
External References • The National Academies of Science, Engineering, Medicine publication: Dietary Reference Intakes
• US FDA Website: Interactive Nutrition Facts Label - Total Carbohydrate
• Book: Understanding Nutrition by Ellie Whitney and Sharon Rady Rolfes
• Harvard Health Publishing article:Glycemic index for 60+ foods
Additional Information Total carbohydrate values for foods in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) are determined as the difference between 100 and the sum of water, protein, total lipid, ash, and alcohol content.



Daily Value Age Group Recommended Daily Values
Toddler 1 to 3 years old: 130 g
Child 4 to 8 years old: 130 g
Male 9 to 13 years old: 130 g
Male 14 to 18 years old: 275 g
Male 19 to 30 years old: 275 g
Male 31 to 50 years old: 275 g
Male 51 to 70 years old: 275 g
Male Senior 71 or older: 275 g
Female 9 to 13 years old: 130 g
Female 14 to 18 years old: 275 g
Female 19 to 30 years old: 275 g
Female 31 to 50 years old: 275 g
Female 51 to 70 years old: 275 g
Female Senior 71 or older: 275 g
Female Pregnancy (>18): 275 g
Female Lactation (>18): 275 g
FDA (Based on 2000 calorie daily diet): 275 g


Dietary Reference Intakes The nutrient Dietary Reference Intakes and nutrition facts is from Institute of Medicine of National Academies 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/11537
US FDA Nutrition Education Nutrition facts knowledge are based on U.S. FOOD & DRUG Administration Nutrition Education Resources & Materials. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/interactivenutritionfactslabel/
National Institutes of Health Nutrition facts knowledge are based on National Institutes of Health Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/list-all
Disclaimer The nutrient information provided here should not take the place of medical advice. We encourage you to talk to your healthcare providers (such as your doctor) about your dietary requirements which are best for your overall health. We also recommend you to read organization or professional reference documents or articles mentioned, but not limited to, in this page. Any mentions and reference links in this page don't represent our endorsement of their services and advice.


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