Nutrient Information: Sodium, Na

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Nutrient Key Information 
Nutrient Name: Sodium, Na
Nutrient Category: Minerals
Measuring Unit: mg
Nutrient Summary: Sodium is one of the chemical elements contained in salt. It is the primary regulator of the extracellular fluid volume.
Nutrient Function: Sodium regulates extracellular fluid volume and plasma volume. It is important for some body processes:

• Regulate extracellular fluid balance
• Help to maintain body's acid-base balance
• Help muscle contraction
• Is essential to nervous system function, such as help sending nerve impulses

High intake of sodium can increase risk of high blood pressure which causes high force of the blood flow that can harm arteries and organs, such as hearts, brains, kidneys, and eyes.

Notes:
1) For the people sweat more (such as individuals who are exposed to high temperatures or who are physically active), the Adequate Intake amount is higher than normally recommended amount.
2) The sodium Daily Values are based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2020-2025 edition published by United States government.

Sodium, Na Interactions With Other Nutrients 
Potassium, K
High intake of sodium can lead to increased potassium excretion through urine

Sodium and potassium work together to maintain fluid balance in the body. High sodium intake can lead to increased potassium excretion through urine. Conversely, higher potassium intake can help to counteract some of the adverse effects of high sodium intake, such as high blood pressure.


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Food Sources

Most sodium is consumed as salt (sodium chloride). About 90% of sodium are added during the food processing in United States. Some foods (such as milk and celery) contain sodium, however, the about is very small compare to salt added in the processed foods.

• High-sodium in processed and canned foods: such as luncheon meats, hot dogs, canned vegetables, processed cheese
• Condiments: such as worcestershire sauce, soy sauce, and ketchup.
• Snack foods: such as chips, crackers, microwave popcorn, and pretzels
• Cold cuts and cured meats
• Burritos and tacos
• Pizza
• Soups
• Breads and rolls

Note:
Food processing increases sodium amount and may cause potassium loss, as a result, the potassium-to-sodium ratio could fall dramatically that will raise the blood pressure.

Sample Foods High in: Sodium, Na
View Additional Food Sources
Food Description Nutrient Amount1 Daily Value%2
Seeds, sunflower seed kernels from shell, dry roasted, with salt added
Category: Nut and Seed Products
6,008 mg 261.22%
Fish, salmon, chinook, smoked, (lox), regular
Category: Finfish and Shellfish Products
2,000 mg 86.96%
Pork, cured, bacon, cooked, restaurant
Category: Pork Products
1,830 mg 79.57%
Cheese, pasteurized process, American, vitamin D fortified
Category: Dairy and Egg Products
1,660 mg 72.17%
Pork, cured, ham -- water added, whole, boneless, separable lean and fat, heated, roasted
Category: Pork Products
1,181 mg 51.35%
Sausage, pork, chorizo, link or ground, cooked, pan-fried
Category: Sausages and Luncheon Meats
983 mg 42.74%
Frankfurter, beef, unheated
Category: Sausages and Luncheon Meats
872 mg 37.91%
1 Nutrient amount is in 100 gram food
2 Use FDA 2000 calorie diet as Daily Value reference



Additional Nutrient Information
Nutrient Summary Sodium is one of the chemical elements contained in salt. It is the primary regulator of the extracellular fluid volume.
Deficiency Health Effects Though concerns have been raised that a low level of sodium intake adversely affects blood lipids, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease risk, there is no evidence to support this concern if an individual take sodium at the level of Adequate Intake (1.5g/day for adult).
Effects if Above Upper Limit The immediate symptoms of acute sodium toxicity are edema and high blood pressure. The major adverse effect of long time high sodium chloride intake is elevated blood pressure and potential damages to the blood vessels, kidneys, brain, and heart.

Note:
• The Upper Limit amount of sodium should be lower for the individuals with hypertension, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease because their blood pressures are more sensitive to sodium.
• The Upper Limit amount of sodium should be higher for people with strenuous physical activity or exposed in hot environment because of the sweat.
External References Learn more by reading The National Academies of Science, Engineering, Medicine publication: Dietary Reference Intakes
or explore US FDA Website: Interactive Nutrition Facts Label - Sodium



Daily Value Age Group Recommended Daily Values Daily Value Upper Limits
Toddler 1 to 3 years old: 800 mg 1,500 mg
Child 4 to 8 years old: 1,000 mg 1,900 mg
Male 9 to 13 years old: 1,200 mg 2,200 mg
Male 14 to 18 years old: 1,500 mg 2,300 mg
Male 19 to 30 years old: 1,500 mg 2,300 mg
Male 31 to 50 years old: 1,500 mg 2,300 mg
Male 51 to 70 years old: 1,500 mg 2,300 mg
Male Senior 71 or older: 1,500 mg 2,300 mg
Female 9 to 13 years old: 1,200 mg 2,200 mg
Female 14 to 18 years old: 1,500 mg 2,300 mg
Female 19 to 30 years old: 1,500 mg 2,300 mg
Female 31 to 50 years old: 1,500 mg 2,300 mg
Female 51 to 70 years old: 1,500 mg 2,300 mg
Female Senior 71 or older: 1,500 mg 2,300 mg
Female Pregnancy (>18): 1,500 mg 2,300 mg
Female Lactation (>18): 1,500 mg 2,300 mg
FDA (Based on 2000 calorie daily diet): 2,300 mg 2,300 mg
Notes:
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend limiting sodium intake to less than 2,300 mg per day, which is about 1 tsp.
Salt (sodium chloride) contains about 40% sodium and 60% chloride. 1 tsp salt contains about 2360mg sodium. Learn more at the Salt page.


Dietary Reference Intakes The nutrient Dietary Reference Intakes and nutrition facts is from Institute of Medicine of National Academies 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/11537
US FDA Nutrition Education Nutrition facts knowledge are based on U.S. FOOD & DRUG Administration Nutrition Education Resources & Materials. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/interactivenutritionfactslabel/
National Institutes of Health Nutrition facts knowledge are based on National Institutes of Health Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/list-all
Disclaimer The nutrient information provided here should not take the place of medical advice. We encourage you to talk to your healthcare providers (such as your doctor) about your dietary requirements which are best for your overall health. We also recommend you to read organization or professional reference documents or articles mentioned, but not limited to, in this page. Any mentions and reference links in this page don't represent our endorsement of their services and advice.


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