Nutrient Information: Riboflavin (Vitamin B-2)

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Nutrient Key Information 
Nutrient Name: Riboflavin (Vitamin B-2)
Nutrient Category: Vitamins and Other Components
Unit Name: mg
Nutrient Summary: Function as coenzymes for numerous oxidation–reduction reactions. It plays major roles in energy production, cellular function, growth, and development.

Sample Foods High in: Riboflavin (Vitamin B-2)
Additional Top Food Sources
Food Description Nutrient Amount1 Daily Value%2
Beef, variety meats and by-products, liver, cooked, pan-fried
Category: Beef Products
3.425 mg 311.36%
Nuts, almonds, dry roasted, with salt added
Category: Nut and Seed Products
1.57 mg 142.73%
Grapes, muscadine, raw
Category: Fruits and Fruit Juices
1.5 mg 136.36%
Cheese, goat, hard type
Category: Dairy and Egg Products
1.19 mg 108.18%
Beef, plate steak, boneless, outside skirt, separable lean and fat, trimmed to 0" fat, all grades, cooked, grilled
Category: Beef Products
0.831 mg 75.55%
Corn flour, masa, enriched, white
Category: Cereal Grains and Pasta
0.805 mg 73.18%
1 Nutrient amount is in 100 gram food
2 Use Female 31-50 years old as Daily Value reference

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Nutrient Detail Information
Nutrient Summary Function as coenzymes for numerous oxidation–reduction reactions. It plays major roles in energy production, cellular function, growth, and development.
Nutrient Function • Breakdown fats, proteins, and carbohydrates, convert food into energy
• Required by niacin formation and vitamin B6 conversion to coenzyme form
• Play important role in growth and development
• Help red blood cell formation

Riboflavin is converted to coenzymes primarily in the tissues of small intestine, liver, heart, and kidneys, very little is stored in the body. The excess is excreted primarily in the urine.

As a B vitamin, Riboflavin is water-soluble. Water-soluble vitamin moves directly into the blood, and not well stored in the body.
Food Sources
Top Food Sources
• Eggs
• Organ meats, such as livers and kidneys
• Lean meats, such as beef
• Low-fat milk and yogurt
• Green vegetables, such as spinach, asparagus, broccoli
• Nuts, such as almonds
• Mushrooms
• Seafood, such as oysters and tuna
• Poultry
• Soybeans
• Enriched grain products (e.g., bread, cereal, pasta, rice)

1. Ultraviolet and visible light can rapidly inactivate riboflavin and its derivatives.
2. Riboflavin is soluble in water. About twice as much riboflavin content is lost if boiling foods in hot water than being cooked by steaming or microwaving.
Deficiency Health Effects Riboflavin deficiency symptoms:
• Swelling and excess blood of the mouth and throat, and sore throat
• Cheilosis: lip cracks especially in the corners of the mouth
• Liver disorders
• Problems with reproductive and nervous systems

Long-term riboflavin deficiency may cause:
• Anemia
• Clouding of the eye lens (cataracts)

Riboflavin deficiency may lead to vitamin B6 and niacin deficiencies.

Diseases such as cancer, cardiac disease, and diabetes mellitus may exacerbate riboflavin deficiency.
Effects if Above Upper Limit There is no sufficient data on adverse effects of excess riboflavin intake, so the Upper Limit value of riboflavin is not defined, however caution is still needed for high intakes.

The body absorbs little riboflavin from single doses beyond 27 mg, when excess amounts are consumed, they are either not absorbed or the small absorbed amount is excreted in urine.
External References Learn more at:
• The National Academies of Science, Engineering, Medicine publication: Dietary Reference Intakes
• NIH (National Institutes of Health) articles: Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)

Daily Value Age Group Recommended Daily Values
Toddler 1 to 3 years old: 0.5 mg
Child 4 to 8 years old: 0.6 mg
Male 9 to 13 years old: 0.9 mg
Male 14 to 18 years old: 1.3 mg
Male 19 to 30 years old: 1.3 mg
Male 31 to 50 years old: 1.3 mg
Male 51 to 70 years old: 1.3 mg
Male Senior 71 or older: 1.3 mg
Female 9 to 13 years old: 0.9 mg
Female 14 to 18 years old: 1 mg
Female 19 to 30 years old: 1.1 mg
Female 31 to 50 years old: 1.1 mg
Female 51 to 70 years old: 1.1 mg
Female Senior 71 or older: 1.1 mg
Female Pregnancy (>18): 1.4 mg
Female Lactation (>18): 1.6 mg
FDA (Based on 2000 calorie daily diet): 1.3 mg

Dietary Reference Intakes The nutrient Dietary Reference Intakes and nutrition facts is from Institute of Medicine of National Academies 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
US FDA Nutrition Education Nutrition facts knowledge are based on U.S. FOOD & DRUG Administration Nutrition Education Resources & Materials.
National Institutes of Health Nutrition facts knowledge are based on National Institutes of Health Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets.
Disclaimer The nutrient information provided here should not take the place of medical advice. We encourage you to talk to your healthcare providers (such as your doctor) about your dietary requirements which are best for your overall health. We also recommend you to read organization or professional reference documents or articles mentioned, but not limited to, in this page. Any mentions and reference links in this page don't represent our endorsement of their services and advice.

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