Nutrient Information: Manganese, Mn

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Nutrient Key Information 
Nutrient Name: Manganese, Mn
Nutrient Category: Minerals
Measuring Unit: mg
Nutrient Summary: Manganese is involved in the formation of bone and in specific reactions related to protein amino acid, cholesterol, and carbohydrate metabolism.
Nutrient Function: • Manganese-containing metalloenzymes assist in cartilage and bone formation.
• Act as a cofactor for many enzymes which facilitate the metabolism of protein amino acids, cholesterol, and carbohydrates.
• Blood clotting and wound healing in conjunction with vitamin K.
• Involved in energy metabolism.
• As a component of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), it protects cells from damage caused by free radicals.
• Play a role in maintaining healthy nerves.

Manganese is taken up from the blood by the liver and transported to extrahepatic tissues by transferrin. Most of the absorbed manganese is excreted via bile into the feces very rapidly, and only a small amount is retained in bone, liver, pancreas, kidney, and brain.

Note:
• High serum ferritin concentration may decrease manganese absorption. Men usually has higher serum ferritin concentrations, it has been shown that men absorb significantly less manganese compared to women.

Manganese, Mn Interactions With Other Nutrients 
Iron, Fe
Iron intake and iron store status in the body have an inverse relationship with manganese absorption

Both iron and manganese use and compete Divalent Metal Transporter 1 (DMT1) for uptake them into intestinal cells. Iron supplements can inhibit manganese absorption more significantly than dietary iron because supplements provide a concentrated source of iron.

The body's iron stores influence the expression of DMT1. When iron stores are low (iron deficiency), the body upregulates DMT1 to increase iron, as well as manganese, absorption. Conversely, when iron stores are high, DMT1 expression is downregulated, which can reduce the absorption of both iron and manganese.


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Food Sources

• Whole grains: such as oatmeal, whole wheat flour
• Shellfish: such as clams, oysters, and mussels
• Nuts: such as hazelnuts, pecans
• Beans: such as soybean, Spanish peanuts, black beans
• Vegetables: such as soybean sprouts, spinach, kale, sweet potato
• Fruits: such as pineapple, wild blueberries, muscadine grapes.
• Tea beverages

Note:
1) High intakes of iron and calcium may reduce manganese absorption
2) Phytate may decrease manganese absorption

Sample Foods High in: Manganese, Mn
View Additional Food Sources
Food Description Nutrient Amount1 Daily Value%2
Oats (Includes foods for USDA's Food Distribution Program)
Category: Cereal Grains and Pasta
4.916 mg 213.74%
Flour, whole wheat, unenriched
Category: Cereal Grains and Pasta
3.56 mg 154.78%
Nuts, hazelnuts or filberts, dry roasted, without salt added
Category: Nut and Seed Products
5.55 mg 241.30%
Nuts, pecans, dry roasted, without salt added
Category: Nut and Seed Products
3.933 mg 171.00%
Seeds, pumpkin and squash seed kernels, roasted, without salt
Category: Nut and Seed Products
4.49 mg 195.22%
Soybeans, mature seeds, sprouted, cooked, stir-fried
Category: Vegetables and Vegetable Products
1.133 mg 49.26%
Spinach, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt
Category: Vegetables and Vegetable Products
0.935 mg 40.65%
Grapes, muscadine, raw
Category: Fruits and Fruit Juices
1.973 mg 85.78%
Pineapple, raw, all varieties
Category: Fruits and Fruit Juices
0.927 mg 40.30%
1 Nutrient amount is in 100 gram food
2 Use FDA 2000 calorie diet as Daily Value reference



Additional Nutrient Information
Nutrient Summary Manganese is involved in the formation of bone and in specific reactions related to protein amino acid, cholesterol, and carbohydrate metabolism.
Deficiency Health Effects Manganese deficiency is very rare in the United States. A few studies observed that manganese depleted persons developed symptoms:
• Weak bones and poor growth in children
• Skin scaly dermatitis
• decreased serum cholesterol (hypocholesterolemia)
Effects if Above Upper Limit The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) is based on elevated blood manganese concentrations and neurotoxicity as the critical adverse effects. Studies have not shown any harm from the manganese in food and beverages.

Manganese toxicity is observed for the people who inhale manganese dust from welding or mining work. Manganese toxicity may cause central nervous system effects similar to those of Parkinson’s disease.

People with chronic liver disease may have larger adverse effects of excess manganese intake, probably because elimination of manganese in bile is impaired. These individuals should be careful in taking manganese supplements.
External References



Daily Value Age Group Recommended Daily Values Daily Value Upper Limits
Toddler 1 to 3 years old: 1.2 mg 2 mg
Child 4 to 8 years old: 1.5 mg 3 mg
Male 9 to 13 years old: 1.9 mg 6 mg
Male 14 to 18 years old: 2.2 mg 9 mg
Male 19 to 30 years old: 2.3 mg 11 mg
Male 31 to 50 years old: 2.3 mg 11 mg
Male 51 to 70 years old: 2.3 mg 11 mg
Male Senior 71 or older: 2.3 mg 11 mg
Female 9 to 13 years old: 1.6 mg 6 mg
Female 14 to 18 years old: 1.6 mg 9 mg
Female 19 to 30 years old: 1.8 mg 11 mg
Female 31 to 50 years old: 1.8 mg 11 mg
Female 51 to 70 years old: 1.8 mg 11 mg
Female Senior 71 or older: 1.8 mg 11 mg
Female Pregnancy (>18): 2 mg 11 mg
Female Lactation (>18): 2.6 mg 11 mg
FDA (Based on 2000 calorie daily diet): 2.3 mg


Dietary Reference Intakes The nutrient Dietary Reference Intakes and nutrition facts is from Institute of Medicine of National Academies 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/11537
US FDA Nutrition Education Nutrition facts knowledge are based on U.S. FOOD & DRUG Administration Nutrition Education Resources & Materials. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/interactivenutritionfactslabel/
National Institutes of Health Nutrition facts knowledge are based on National Institutes of Health Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/list-all
Disclaimer The nutrient information provided here should not take the place of medical advice. We encourage you to talk to your healthcare providers (such as your doctor) about your dietary requirements which are best for your overall health. We also recommend you to read organization or professional reference documents or articles mentioned, but not limited to, in this page. Any mentions and reference links in this page don't represent our endorsement of their services and advice.


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